In the same year, the city passed Ordinance No. 63-2005, otherwise known as Bayawan City Integrated and Ecological Solid Waste Management Ordinance of 2005. Likewise, the city created a SWM Division under the Office of the City ENRO. The SWM office has been fully functional and responsible in the immediate implementation of all the integrated solid waste management projects identified under the SWM Plan.
In 2009, a Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (WACS) was conducted in the urban and rural barangays of the city. The average waste generation rate is 0.58 kg/capita/day in urban barangays and 0.29 kg/capita/day in rural areas. As of 2009, estimated waste generation within collection area is 23 tons/day. The city’s MSW predominantly comes from residential areas, commercial and institutional sources.
The city established a collection system with separate collection days for biodegradable and non-biodegradable. In terms of population, the collection area covers approximately 35%. Existing collection serves 7 urban and 3 rural barangays out of total 28 barangays utilizing 4 compactor trucks and 1 mini dump truck. Schedule of collection starts from Monday, Wednesday and Friday for biodegradables while Tuesday and Saturday for non-biodegradable.
Based on the outline of the SWM Plan, the LGU conducted a site selection survey, prepared the needed planning documents and officially submitted its Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) document to DENR/EMB-7 for its proposed 27-hectare Bayawan City Waste Management and Ecology Center (BCWMEC) located in Sitio Omod, Barangay Maninihon. The facility was granted in June 16, 2008 an Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) No. ECC-RO7-0806-0177-213. The BCWMEC includes a bentonite clay-lined sanitary landfill, a composting area, an office/building, a building that houses the materials recovery facility, a septage treatment facility and wastewater treatment facility. The construction of the BCWMEC focused on the application of appropriate technologies and utilized local equipment, local expertise and local materials to reduce project cost as far as possible. The BCWMC started full operation in April 2010, after a construction of 18 months.
Material Resources Recovery, Recycling and Composting. The MRF and windrow composting area are both located within the BCWMEC. The MRF is a permanent shed/building that utilizes gravity force to slide down the recyclables to segregation bins during final waste processing. The use of a gravity-based system in segregation results into an efficient way of operation by the waste pickers and reduced maintenance. The operation of the MRF and composting support the extension of the lifespan of the sanitary landfill and prevents the disposal of recyclables and bio-waste into the landfill.
The collected biodegradables are brought to the MRF/composting facility. Two different types of compositing are applied: windrow composting and vermi composting. Compost production is presently conducted utilizing windrow composting and further enhancement through vermi composting. The static composting provides a less costly way to process biodegradable waste. In the rural areas, biodegradables are not collected due to lack of access road and high cost of collection. Instead, backyard composting is promoted.
Supported with intensive information campaign on source reduction methods such as backyard composting, source segregation, segregated collection including fee system, Bayawan City will be conducting again another WACS in order to account for the different component of waste collected by the LGU and for the city to plan further strategies to improve the operation of BCWMEC, to further enhance their SWM program and improve cost recovery.
Dumpsite Closure and Rehabilitation. The city prepared a Closure and Rehabilitation Plan for its old open dump in Barangay Banga, which was granted an Authority-to-Close by DENR/EMB-7. With the operation of the BCWMEC, disposal of solid waste into the old dumpsite ceased.
Integrated Waste Management and Sanitary Landfill Establishment. The sanitary landfill at the BCWMEC started its operation in April 2009. The SLF has a lifespan of 10-15 years. In addition to the landfill and the MRF component at the BCWMEC, also established are the septage treatment facility and wastewater treatment facility to treat the leachate from the landfill and the supernatant from the septage treatment facility. Bayawan City has already good experience with ‘reed bed treatment’ or wetland, which treats the liquid waste from 700 household. The reed bed treatment for wastewater at the BCWMEC needs to be monitored on its performance since it receives a different type of wastewater compared to the existing wetland. With this again pioneering effort of Bayawan City, it goes one step further to utilize the project and to add initiatives to enhance liquid waste management thereby maintaining clean environment for the city.
Cost Recovery. To support a sound operation of the BCWMEC, Bayawan City implemented the needed support measures for waste segregation at source and for cost recovery by releasing a new Waste Management Ordinance, Ordinance No. 63-2005 otherwise known as the Bayawan City Integrated and Ecological Solid Waste Management Ordinance of 2005. Article 18, Section 44 of this Ordinance details the provision on Establishment of SWM Fund. It provides also the creation of a special account to be administered by the City Solid Waste Management Board.
In the Philippines, cost recovery mechanisms for waste are seldom in place due to the fact that the citizens expect that solid waste management service are provided by the government cost-free. Since waste management fees are hardly claimed so far, it seems difficult to propose and implement a ‘generators-pay principle’. However, without an efficient cost-recovery mechanism, the sustainability of waste management services and enhancement projects is questionable (Boorsma et al, 2009). For a project like the BCWMEC, cost estimates at every phase of work is indispensable to determine which stage of the project the LGU can implement or initiate cost reduction measures, based on its funding capacity.
In 2008, Bayawan City conducted a Full Cost Accounting and based on the result, it formulated its cost recovery mechanism that applies stickers as medium to implement waste segregation at source combined with cost recovery. The sticker system makes it mandatory that a sticker worth 4-5 dollar-cents should be attached to an equivalent size of cement sack container of solid waste from households and business establishment before the conduct of garbage collection. With this system, the city collects approximately 450 USD monthly, excluding the cost for collection (Boorsma et al, 2010).
Again, an extensive information and education campaign (IEC) of the target barangays preceded the implementation of the sticker system. The city also formulated a SWM Enforcement Plan and provided training and deputization to enforcers.